Segunda-feira, 17 de Junho de 2013
Russel´s inaccuracies about what is a universal on Aristotle

Bertrand Russel wrote about Aristotle´s distinction between substance (ousía) and universal (kathoulou, in Greek):


«What is signified by a proper name is a "substance", while what is signified by an adjective or class-name, such as "human" or "man" is called a "universal". A substance is a "this", but a universal is a "such" - it indicates the sort of thing, not the actual particular thing. A universal is not a substance, because it is not a "This" ». (Russell, History of Western Philosophy, page 160)


There is a mistake on Russel´s thoughts about Aristotle. "Man" is  not an universal but a specie, i.e, a common form of similar objects, in the case, human bodies. In fact, Aristotle never consideres the essence as a universal - for example: the essence horse, the form of all real horses, is not a universal - although he considers sometimes the genus - for example: animal - as a universal. He wrote, refuting the theory of separated Ideas from sensible world of Plato:


« But perhaps the universal, while it cannot be substance in the way in which the essence is so, can be present in this, e.g., animal can be present in man and horse. Then clearly there is a formula of the universal. And it makes no difference even if there is not a formula of everything that is in the substance: for none the less the universal will be the substance of anything. Man is the substance of the individual man in whom is present; therefore the same will happen again, for a substance, e.g., animal, must be the substance of that in which it is present as something peculiar to it. And further it is impossible and absurd that the "this", i.e., the substance, if it consists of parts, should not consist of substances nor  of what is a "this", but of quality; for that which is  not substance, i.e., the quality, will be then prior to substance and to the "this". Which is impossible; for neither in formula nor in time nor in coming to be can the affections be prior to the substance; for then they would be separable from it. » (Aristotle, Metaphysics, Book VII, 1038b, 15-30, The Complete Works of Aristotle, volume II, Princeton/ Bollingen Series; the bold is put by me)


We must know how to interpret accurately this text . Aristotle is  criticizing the theory of Plato who sustained that archethypes - i.e., pure and immaterial forms, such as Man, Tree, and qualities, such as Kindness, Justice- are substances, i.e, individual essences. And he is also criticzing Plato  for not prioritizing the archetypes. To Aristotle, on considering a Man with Courage, it is impossible that Courage (a quality) is prior to Man (a essence) because Courage only exist in Men (or in Animals).


On Aristotle, the universal is a quality, nor a form or essence, neither a substance or materialized and individualized form . Animal is a quality, not a form. In fact, animal holds multiple forms different from each other. And the universals as such, above all genera, such as the one and the being, are qualities.


© (Direitos de autor para Francisco Limpo de Faria Queiroz)


publicado por Francisco Limpo Queiroz às 10:14
link do post | comentar | favorito

Segunda-feira, 13 de Dezembro de 2010
The non dialectical thought of Simon Blackburn


In his book “Truth, a Guide for the Perplexed” Simon Blackburn proposes a chart of theories in each area of knowledge– for example: mathematics, ethics, aesthetics, probability, chemistry,  biology – and presents the schema bellow designed. He writes:


«Any map of alternatives must be provisional, but there is good reason to attempt to draw one. In the chart overleaf the central topic is discrebed as our area of discourse and commitment. In other words, the phenomenon about which theories cluster is the fact of our sayings and thoughts.» (...) 


Eliminativism (1)                                      Realism(2)  




 Constructivism  (3)                                   Quietism (4)



1) Eliminativism: (Get ride of it!)

2) Realism (Get it right, then talk of truth, ontology, reality, fact...)

3) Constructivism: (Keep on playing, but...) also fictionalism, instrumentalism, pragmatism, expressivism...

4) Quietism (No contest) Soggy pluralism    »   (Simon Blackburn, A Guide for the Perplexed, Penguin Books, page 113)



In the chart above, stays a mistaken division of theories, consequence of the non dialectical thought of Simon Blackburn. He confuses different levels, mixing genus with species of other genus, separating genus which mutually intersect. For example, quietism is not contrary to realism - in his last philosophical phase, Wittgenstein was realist and quietist - and can not be placed as it is (bellow realism) on the chart above. Realism belongs to the genus ontology and quietism belongs to the genus praxiology (this term means the discipline centred in action/ no action). Quietism is opposite to epistemological Mobilism.


Constructivism belongs to a genus different from realism, not absolutely extrinsic to it: there is a constructivist realism and a non constructivist (or static) realism. So, in some way, a part of constructivism is included in realism like a species: the realism constructivist. How can Blackburn exteriorize constructivism from realism, if the first is simultaneously inside and outside realism? There is a realist constructivism, an idealist constructivism and a phenomenological constructivism. And eliminativism belongs to  genus ergoloy: it is not opossite to realism, because there is an elimiminativist realism... In fact, we can be a constructivist, eliminativist and quietist realist at the same time. These four terms are not excluding each other as Blackburn supposed. This one does not distinguish the contraries from the intermediates. He ignores dialectical reasoning.




© (Direitos de autor para Francisco Limpo de Faria Queiroz)



publicado por Francisco Limpo Queiroz às 10:32
link do post | comentar | favorito

Domingo, 11 de Abril de 2010
Objectivism is not the contrary of relativism (Confused Views in the Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy-VII)

In the Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy Simon Blackburn defines ethical objectivism as if it was the contrary of relativism:


«Ethical objectivism. The view that the claims of ethics are objectively true; they are not “relative” to a a subject or a culture, nor purely subjective in their nature, in opposition to error theories, scepticism and relativism. The central problem is finding the source of the required objectivity.»(Simon Blackburn, Dictionary of Philosophy, Oxford, Page 121 ).

 There is a mistake, a missing of dialectics in Simon Blackburn: the contrary of objectivism is not relativism. It is subjectivism, the singular and intimate view of each person. Relativism means the theory which sustains that the truth varies according to the societies, according to each social class and political, philosophical, cultural or religious group within the same society, the continents and the ages, the space and the time, but possesses objectivity: for example, space is relative in the theory of Einstein, is “round” near great masses and “straight” far away them, but in all cases is objective, has objectivity and relativity. Objectivity does not mean immutability as Blackburn supposes. The changes express relativity of things and stadiums but conserve objectivity. For example: the water can assume a solid, liquid or gas shape and this is relativism (the changes of the same essence) and simultaneously is objectivism (a reality outside our minds perceived by all with unanimity).  So relativism is not opposite to objectivism, because they coexist in the same phenomena without mutual exclusion.

Blackburn confuses objectivism with absolutism, based on immutability. Objectivity is a property of relativism and of absolutism / no relativism, I mean : objectivism is genus and relativism and no relativism are species partially contained in it.


© (Direitos de autor para Francisco Limpo de Faria Queiroz)

publicado por Francisco Limpo Queiroz às 11:23
link do post | comentar | favorito

mais sobre mim
Setembro 2020






posts recentes

Russel´s inaccuracies abo...

The non dialectical thoug...

Objectivism is not the co...


Setembro 2020

Agosto 2020

Julho 2020

Junho 2020

Maio 2020

Abril 2020

Março 2020

Fevereiro 2020

Janeiro 2020

Dezembro 2019

Novembro 2019

Outubro 2019

Setembro 2019

Agosto 2019

Julho 2019

Junho 2019

Maio 2019

Abril 2019

Março 2019

Fevereiro 2019

Janeiro 2019

Dezembro 2018

Novembro 2018

Outubro 2018

Setembro 2018

Agosto 2018

Julho 2018

Junho 2018

Maio 2018

Abril 2018

Março 2018

Fevereiro 2018

Janeiro 2018

Dezembro 2017

Novembro 2017

Outubro 2017

Setembro 2017

Agosto 2017

Julho 2017

Junho 2017

Maio 2017

Abril 2017

Março 2017

Fevereiro 2017

Janeiro 2017

Dezembro 2016

Novembro 2016

Outubro 2016

Setembro 2016

Julho 2016

Junho 2016

Maio 2016

Abril 2016

Março 2016

Fevereiro 2016

Janeiro 2016

Dezembro 2015

Novembro 2015

Outubro 2015

Setembro 2015

Agosto 2015

Julho 2015

Junho 2015

Maio 2015

Abril 2015

Março 2015

Fevereiro 2015

Janeiro 2015

Dezembro 2014

Novembro 2014

Outubro 2014

Setembro 2014

Agosto 2014

Julho 2014

Junho 2014

Maio 2014

Abril 2014

Março 2014

Fevereiro 2014

Janeiro 2014

Dezembro 2013

Novembro 2013

Outubro 2013

Setembro 2013

Agosto 2013

Julho 2013

Junho 2013

Maio 2013

Abril 2013

Março 2013

Fevereiro 2013

Janeiro 2013

Dezembro 2012

Novembro 2012

Outubro 2012

Setembro 2012

Agosto 2012

Julho 2012

Junho 2012

Maio 2012

Abril 2012

Março 2012

Fevereiro 2012

Janeiro 2012

Dezembro 2011

Novembro 2011

Outubro 2011

Setembro 2011

Agosto 2011

Julho 2011

Junho 2011

Maio 2011

Abril 2011

Março 2011

Fevereiro 2011

Janeiro 2011

Dezembro 2010

Novembro 2010

Outubro 2010

Setembro 2010

Agosto 2010

Julho 2010

Junho 2010

Maio 2010

Abril 2010

Março 2010

Fevereiro 2010

Janeiro 2010

Dezembro 2009

Novembro 2009

Outubro 2009

Setembro 2009

Agosto 2009

Julho 2009

Junho 2009

Maio 2009

Abril 2009

Março 2009

Fevereiro 2009

Janeiro 2009

Dezembro 2008

Novembro 2008

Outubro 2008

Setembro 2008

Julho 2008

Junho 2008

Maio 2008

Abril 2008

Março 2008

Fevereiro 2008

Janeiro 2008

Dezembro 2007

Novembro 2007

Outubro 2007

Setembro 2007

Agosto 2007

Julho 2007

Junho 2007

Maio 2007

Abril 2007

Março 2007

Fevereiro 2007

Janeiro 2007

Dezembro 2006

Novembro 2006

Setembro 2006

Agosto 2006

Julho 2006

Maio 2006

Abril 2006

Março 2006

Fevereiro 2006


todas as tags


Teste de filosofia do 11º...

Pequenas reflexões de Ab...

Suicídios de pilotos de a...

David Icke: a sexualidade...

blogs SAPO
subscrever feeds